For first time canoe paddlers, stability can be a major concern. Since it’s their first time ever paddling out on the water, they’re worried that they will end up making a mistake to flip the canoe over. Little do they know that flipping over a canoe on accident is a rather uncommon occurrence.
It’s not difficult to intentionally flip over a canoe. However, it’s fairly easy to keep the canoe upright in calm waters, even for beginners. The design of the canoe offers paddlers superior control, granting them the ability to intentionally flip the canoe over or maintain an upright position.
The statements above almost seem contradicting. How can a canoe be easy to flip over on purpose, yet hard to flip over on accident? The answer to this question deserves a more in depth description, which is provided in the sections below.
Why Keeping a Canoe from Flipping is Not Hard
As a first timer, it can be hard to fathom the idea that paddlers don’t overturn the canoe that often. It’s only when first timers experience canoeing for themselves that they realize that retaining balance is not difficult whatsoever. There are a few reasons for this, particularly surrounding the design of the canoe itself.
The Structure of Canoes Promote a Low Center of Gravity
To learn why canoes are hard to flip over, it’s important to understand what causes canoes to overturn in the first place.
The guilty party that’s responsible for the majority of canoe flipping incidents is a high center of gravity. A higher center of gravity lends itself to a loss of stability since it throws off the weight distribution of the canoe. Paddlers are much more likely to topple over when faced with a sudden, abrupt force, like a rogue wave or an unexpected rock.
Canoe manufacturers are well aware of this problem, which is why they’ve pushed toward constructing modern canoes that—more or less—force paddlers into positioning themselves with a low center of gravity. This way, the weight distribution of the canoe is set more evenly, making it less likely for the canoe to tip over when confronted with adversity.
For example, canoe manufacturers have promoted a lower center of gravity by raising the seats of the canoe. To new paddlers, this may seem counterintuitive. After all, won’t raising the seats automatically raise the paddler’s center of gravity?
Fortunately, this is not so. Elevating the seats of the canoe affords paddlers additional room underneath the seat to kneel comfortably in the canoe. Kneeling lowers the paddler’s center of gravity significantly, transferring the weight of the rider more evenly across multiple points of contact.
When a paddler sits with their knees up, it’s much harder to achieve stability because the paddler’s center of gravity is much higher. This subtle change in seat elevation may not seem like much to a novice paddler, but it makes a world of a difference out on the water.
The Hull Design Makes Balancing Easy
Furthermore, the manner in which the canoe’s hull is put together promotes further stability depending on what sort of water conditions are present.
Generally, beginner and family oriented canoes feature a flatter hull that’s more accustomed to flat waters. Flatter hull designs resist tipping over from one side to the other, as its natural tendency is to remain level with the water. This is perfect for paddling novices and families since they will most likely not be paddling in rough, harsh conditions. They can maintain their balance with little risk of severely offsetting the natural weight distribution of the watercraft.
Although flatter hull designs do offer a greater amount of stability in flat waters, they get tossed about in whitewater conditions. Canoes that feature a noticeably rounded bottom sway with the waves. This “rocking” movement absorbs the brunt impact of the waves much better than canoes with flatter hulls.
For this reason, serious canoeists opt to go with this type of hull design once they’ve decided to take on challenging conditions. These types of canoes are more prone to rocking left or right, but experienced paddlers can use this to their advantage by manipulating how the canoe slices through the water. This way, their canoe is not abandoned to the mercy of the waves. Instead, paddlers retain some semblance of control over where the canoe moves.
The selection of flat and rounded hulls—and even a mix of something in between—allows paddlers the chance to get the best canoe to suit their specific purposes. All canoes are built to withstand the stresses of water instability, but some are suited to certain types of water more than others.
Factors that Increase the Likelihood of Flipping a Canoe
Even though canoes are specially configured for balance on the water, there are still circumstances where the canoe will flip over. If you want to avoid capsizing the canoe on accident, it’s in your best interest to familiarize yourself with the risk factors below.
To start off, it’s important to realize that the present water conditions are an integral part of how difficult it is to maintain balance in a canoe.
It’s highly recommended that novice paddlers begin in flat, calm waters to master the fundamentals of paddling and build up a sense of comfort while sitting in the canoe. Since there are no disturbances in the water, the only thing that the paddler has to worry about is keeping their weigh distributed evenly.
Once a paddler has progressed past the beginner stage of paddling, the next tier up is whitewater conditions. Whitewater crashes against the canoe and forces the watercraft to go in all sorts of directions, making it hard for canoeists to maintain proper control over the watercraft. For this reason, canoe flipping happens far more often under these conditions.
Many popular canoeing destinations have specific ratings that indicate its level of difficulty, much like the slope color system in skiing (source). Look for this beforehand to get a better idea of what water trail is right for your current experience level. This way, you can avoid thrusting yourself into a precarious situation unknowingly.
Pushing Off of the Landscape
Another risky maneuver that causes many novice paddlers to accidentally flip the canoe is physically pushing off of natural obstacles.
When a canoeist is presented with a protruding tree branch or a seemingly sturdy rock, they have a tendency to push or grab with their hands. Their first instinct is to maneuver the obstacle away from them, rather than maneuver themselves away from the obstacle.
Trying to push or pull at natural obstacles will likely do more harm than good. It throws off a paddler’s natural balance and often causes them to elevate their center of gravity.
When you encounter an environmental barrier in your way, resist the temptation to touch it. If it’s a tree branch in your way, force yourself to crouch lower in the canoe to lower your center of gravity. If there’s a big rock in your path, use your paddle to flank around, as opposed to pushing off with your hands.
Some paddlers opt to stand up in the canoe when they’re out on the water. Unfortunately, a canoe is not the same thing as a stand up paddle board. More often than not, standing up in a canoe is a recipe for disaster.
Again, this has to do with the instability linked with an elevated center of gravity. As paddlers try to maintain a standing position, the canoe becomes more sensitive to every little movement. Under these conditions, everything can sputter out of control very quickly for the paddler. All it takes is one involuntary shift in the paddler’s weight to cause the canoe to topple over.
Some canoes are better designed for standing up compared to others. Generally, paddlers should not try this tactic until they’re intimately familiar with how their canoe reacts to basic paddling movements. Even then, it’s recommended that paddlers only try to stand up while the canoe is stationary.
Canoeing with Multiple People
Adding multiple people to the equation can also increase the likelihood of the canoe flipping over, especially if one of the paddlers is a novice.
Coordinating paddle movements with another rider can be challenging. Since paddling has a direct impact on the overall balance of the canoe, staying on the same page with the other riders in the canoe is critical.
For example, if one rider is paddling on the starboard side, the other rider should paddle on the port side. This will prevent the paddlers from unintentionally favoring one side of the canoe. It will also help to sustain a straight path on the water.
Ideally, all paddlers should switch paddling sides in unison. To accomplish this, one of the paddlers must communicate this to the others. Otherwise, everyone will go off on their own.
Tips On How to Stay Upright While Canoeing
To minimize the chances of flipping the canoe over unintentionally, there are a couple of subtle tricks that you can use to your advantage. These tips may not eliminate the problem of flipping altogether, but they do provide some much needed assistance in a pinch.
Pay Attention to the Seating Arrangement
Before actually heading out on the water, it’s solid practice to organize the seating arrangement according to experience level and body weight.
In a tandem canoe, the paddler with the highest level of experience should sit in the stern of the canoe. Ideally, the heaviest paddler should be positioned at the stern of the canoe if there are two riders. In the case of three riders, the heaviest paddler should be positioned in the middle.
The stern offers a superior amount of control by way of additional steering leverage on turns. For this reason, this seating position should not be handed over to someone who does not know basic paddling fundamentals. Nor should it be handed over to someone who’s too lightweight to drive sufficient force into every paddle stroke.
If the most experienced paddler is not the heaviest, you will have to make a decision as to who should sit where. If the weight difference is rather substantial, the heaviest person should take the position at the stern, even if they do not have much canoeing experience.
Keep Your Eyes on the Horizon
Another overlooked balancing tip is to focus your vision on what’s in front of you. A boatload of beginners (pun intended) have a bad habit of concentrating on the bow of the boat when they paddle. As they do this, they begin to hunch over, losing their stable upright position.
In paddling, keeping the eyes forward forces paddlers to maintain a solid, strong stance. Plus, it improves circumstantial awareness, helping them to avoid oncoming obstacles before they ever have a chance to become a major issue.
The last thing you want to do is be confronted unexpectedly with a floating log or an impassable rock. At this point, you will be forced to make hasty decisions, which may lend itself to a loss of balance.
Use the Paddle as a Balance Support
Moreover, many aspiring canoeists fail to realize the crucial role that the paddle plays in acting as a balance support.
Although the main purpose of the paddle is to act as a primary mover, it also serves as a source of balance for when the canoe begins to tip over. The first instinct for many paddlers is to place their hands onto the canoe when things get shaky. This seems like a good idea at first, but it almost always fails to save the canoe from flipping.
Instead, it’s advised that canoeists slap at the surface of the water with their paddle blade. Believe it or not, slapping at the surface of the water with the paddle blade affords canoeists a few precious moments to regain their composure and redistribute their weight evenly across the canoe. This may take some time to master, but it’s better than the alternative of flailing your arms about to no avail.
What to Do If You Flip the Canoe and Fall into the Water
The majority of canoeists won’t ever have to deal with an overturned canoe, but it’s still valuable to prepare for this eventuality. There are two ways that paddlers can deal with a canoe that has flipped over.
Swim the Canoe Back to Shore
For most canoeists, the safest option is to swim the canoe back to shore and relaunch from there. Since recreational canoeists lack experience in re-entering the canoe in deep water, it’s best to forgo this option to avoid further risk of injury.
Swimming the canoe back to shore is the ideal option for paddlers that have capsized near shore where it isn’t too difficult to haul the canoe back onto land. However, there are certain cases where you may want to consider leaving your canoe behind and prioritizing your own safety above all else. If it ever comes to this point, worry about putting yourself out of harm’s way first. You can deal with recovering your canoe later.
Re-Enter the Canoe from the Water
As aforementioned, re-entering the canoe in deep waters is considerably more challenging and is typically only reserved for advanced paddlers.
If there’s another canoe nearby that’s willing to offer a helping hand, they can help ease this process by implementing what is known as a Canoe-Over-Canoe rescue technique.
With this technique, the first order of business is to lay the capsized canoe on top of the rescue canoe. The paddlers in the water help to stabilize the rescue canoe while this transfer is being made.
The underlying purpose of this maneuver is twofold. For one, it rids the overturned canoe of trapped water in the boat interior. Two, it makes the process of flipping the canoe right side up more convenient for the paddlers stuck in the water.
Once the rescuers have put the canoe back into the water right side up, the next major step is for the capsized paddlers to prop themselves back up into the canoe. The rescuers will stabilize the canoe while the swamped paddlers attempt to re-enter the canoe, one at a time. This may take a few minutes, as this maneuver requires a great deal of body strength.
It may be a tad hard to visualize this with words alone, so I provided a video below to help better explain this process.
As you can probably imagine, re-entering a canoe without the help of a second boat is a lot more difficult. Rather than relying on the rescuers to rid the canoe of excess water and turn it right side up, it’s up to the swamped paddlers to take care of these tasks on their own.
This is even more physically taxing on the paddlers than the Canoe-Over-Canoe rescue technique. It’s best to avoid this problem completely by staying close to shore and paddling in set groups.
Why You Should Practice the Canoe Flip and Rescue
The accidental flipping of canoes is a rare occasion, even for novice paddlers. However, you should still take the time to learn how the fundamental techniques of the canoe flip and rescue firsthand to prepare for every eventuality. Facing this problem for the first time on your own when the stakes are real puts you and your company in a very risky situation.
Learning this skill is particularly critical when you decide to paddle in large open bodies of water, where wind and water conditions are harsher. Under these circumstances, swimming the canoe back to shore may not be a viable option.
Even if you consider yourself an intermediate to advanced level of canoeist, practicing re-entering techniques is still a great idea. It only takes anywhere from ten to fifteen minutes to deliberately tip the canoe over and practice re-entering the canoe, so you don’t have to commit a large sum of time to developing this skill.
Just make sure that you do this with other seasoned canoeists around. Intentionally spilling into the water with only novices to offer aid isn’t exactly reassuring.
As a side note, remember to always wear a life vest when canoeing. Trying to stay afloat while simultaneously attempting to re-enter a canoe in deep waters is a challenge that’s far too difficult for most. It may seem like a petty inconvenience, but it’s always better to be safe than sorry.
The Bottom Line
Paradoxically, flipping over a canoe is easy to do on purpose but hard to do on accident. This mainly has to do with how canoes are designed.
Nonetheless, you should still develop a habit of maintaining a low center of gravity to minimize the chances of tipping over. Learning how to re-enter a swamped canoe is an essential skill to learn, especially if you want to test your luck with rougher water and wind conditions.
Now that you know preserving your balance in a canoe is rather easy, go out there and paddle!